THE FOUR-FOLD DUTY OF THE COURT
1. It must inform the defendant that he has a right to an attorney before being arraigned
2. After informing him, the court must ask the defendant if he desires to have the aid of an attorney
3. If he desires and is unable to employ an attorney, the court must assign an attorney de officio to defend him
4. If the accused desires to procure an attorney of his own, the court must grant him a reasonable time to procure one
WHAT IS THE REASON FOR THE FOUR-FOLD DUTY?
> The right to be heard would be of little avail if it doesn’t include the right to be heard by counsel
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF THE FAILURE OF THE COURT TO COMPLY WITH THESE DUTIES?
> It is a violation of due process