Resolution Of Investigating Judge And Its Review

Sec.  5.  Resolution  of  investigating  judge  and  its  review. -  Within ten (10) days after the preliminary investigation, the investigating judge shall transmit the resolution of the case to the provincial or city  prosecutor,  or  to  the  Ombudsman  or  his  deputy  in  cases  of offenses  cognizable  by  the  Sandiganbayan  in  the  exercise  of  its original jurisdiction,  for  appropriate  action.  The  resolution  shall state  the  findings  of  facts  and  the  law  supporting  his  action, together  with  the  record  of  the  case  which  shall  include:  (a)  the warrant, if the  arrest  is by  virtue of a warrant; (b)  the affidavits,counter-affidavits and other supporting evidence of the parties; (c) the undertaking or bail of the accused and the order for his release; (d)  the  transcripts  of  the  proceedings  during  the  preliminary
investigation; and (e) the order of cancellation of his bail bond, if the resolution is for the dismissal of the complaint.
Within thirty (30) days from  receipt of the  records,  the provincial or  city  prosecutor,  or  the  Ombudsman  or  his  deputy,  as  the  case may  be,  shall  review  the  resolution  of  the  investigating  judge  on the  existence  of  probable  cause.  Their  ruling  shall  expressly  and clearly  state  the  facts  and  the  law  on  which  it  is  based  and  the parties shall be furnished with copies thereof. They shall order the release of an accused who is detained if no probable cause is found against him.
Sec.  6.  When  warrant  of  arrest  may  issue.  –  (a)  By  the  Regional Trial Court. – Within ten (10) days from the filing of the complaint or information, the judge shall personally evaluate the resolution of the  prosecutor  and  its  supporting  evidence.  He  may  immediately dismiss the case if the evidence on record clearly fails to establish probable cause. If he finds probable cause, he shall issue a warrant of arrest, or a commitment order if the  accused has already  been arrested pursuant to a warrant issued by the judge who conducted the preliminary investigation or when the complaint or information was filed pursuant to section 7 of this Rule. In case of doubt on the existence of probable cause, the judge may order the prosecutor to present  additional  evidence  within  five  (5)  days  from  notice  and the  issue  must  be  resolved  by  the  court  within  thirty  (30)  days from the filing of the complaint of information.
(b) By the Municipal Trial Court.  – When required pursuant to the second   paragraph   of   section   of   this   Rule,   the   preliminary investigation  of  cases  falling  under  the  original  jurisdiction  of  the Metropolitan  Trial  Court,  Municipal  Trial  Court  in  Cities,  Municipal Trial  Court,  or  Municipal  Circuit  Trial  Court  may  be  conducted  by either  the  judge  or  the  prosecutor.  When  conducted  by  the prosecutor, the procedure for the issuance of a warrant of arrest by the judge shall be governed by paragraph (a) of this section. When the investigation is conducted by the judge himself, he shall follow the procedure provided in section 3 of this Rule. If his findings and recommendations are affirmed by the provincial or city prosecutor, or  by  the  Ombudsman  or  his  deputy,  and  the  corresponding information  is  filed,  he  shall  issue  a  warrant  of  arrest.  However, without  waiting  for  the  conclusion  of  the  investigation,  the  judge may  issue  a  warrant  of  arrest  if  he  finds  after  an  examination  in writing and under oath of the complainant and his witnesses in the form  of  searching  questions  and  answers,  that  a  probable  cause exists and that there is a necessity of placing the respondent under immediate custody in order not to frustrate the ends of justice.
(c)  When  warrant  of  arrest  not  necessary.  –  A  warrant  of  arrest shall not issue if the accused is already under detention pursuant to a warrant issued by the municipal trial court in accordance with paragraph  (b)  of  this  section,  or  if  the  complaint  or  information was  filed  pursuant  to  section  7  of  this  Rule  or  is  for  an  offense penalized by fine only. The court shall them proceed in the exercise
of its original jurisdiction.